References & Resources


Paul Baker, King and Country Call: New Zealanders, Conscription and the Great War. Auckland: Auckland University Press, 1988.

Paul Baker discusses the issues around compulsory conscription during the First World War, and outlines the pacifist and anti-militarist response. Chapter Seven of his book examines the way in which conscientious objectors such as Archibald Baxter were treated by the government, as well as discussing Maori resistance to fighting in the war.

David Grant, Out in the Cold: Pacifists and Conscientious Objectors in New Zealand during World War II. Auckland: Reed Methuen, 1986.

In this highly readable book David Grant discusses the pacifists and conscientious objectors who refused to be part of the Second World War. He traces the origins of anti-war beliefs during the First World War and then provides a social history of the men and women who refused the call to fight, relying extensively on oral history interviews with many of the people covered in the book.

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Tau Te Mauri ā€“ Breath of Peace, 2005

Eight individuals who have struggled and sacrificed for the cause of peace tell their stories in this 72 minute long film. From conscientious objectors imprisoned during the Second World War to Greenpeace activists resisting nuclear testing in the Pacific, Tau Te Mauri reveals how some amazing New Zealanders have put themselves on the line for global peace.

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White Poppies for Peace

The white poppy is a symbol of remembrance for all the casualties of war, civilians and armed forces personnel, and of peace. Some people see it as an alternative to the red poppy, others see it as complementary; some choose to wear both poppies, some one or the other, and some no poppy at all.

All proceeds from the sale of poppies go to the white poppies for peace scholarships fund. The peace scholarships comprise two grants which will be awarded each year to assist with research into alternatives to militarism and war, and / or collective non-violent responses to state violence. The scholarships are for students studying at any tertiary educational institution, wananga or university, in Aotearoa New Zealand. Each grant will be a minimum of $1,000; with one awarded to a Maori student, and one open to any student.

International Conscientious Objectors’ Day ā€“ 15 May

15 May was first celebrated as a day of action in 1982. The day focuses on the struggle for the right to conscientious objection. Usually one particular struggle is highlighted each year, while at the same time remembering those who served this cause in the past.

Prisoners for Peace Day ā€“ 1 December

Prisoners for Peace Day was introduced in the 1950s. The day is a way to support those imprisoned for their stand against war and war preparations, by sending greeting cards to prisoners, and raising public awareness of prisoners for peace.

War Resisters International

War Resisters International (WRI) is an organization dedicated to promoting and supporting conscientious objectors and their struggle to resist taking part in war. Leading campaigns to raise awareness of individuals around the globe who are being punished for refusing to fight, WRI also runs days of remembrance for conscientious objectors throughout the twentieth century.

Peace Movement Aotearoa

Peace Movement Aotearoa (PMA) is a network of individuals and organizations in Aotearoa New Zealand dedicated to peace, justice and human rights. Linking people together, profiling causes and campaigns, and sharing resources, PMA is an excellent source of information and a great way to get involved in local movements for peace.

NZ Peace Foundation

The Peace Foundation is a not-for-profit organisation actively involved in creating a more peaceful society. The Foundation promotes peaceful relationships among people of all ages, at all levels, through education, research and action.

The Internet Peace Gateway

The online directory of groups in Aotearoa/New Zealand who are working for peace.

Maori conscientious objection in the First World War

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